Digitalizing the Narratives: Structural Analysis of Far Cry 3

Eeshan Ali , Indian School of Mines, Jharkhand, India

Arijit Karati, Indian School of Mines, Jharkhand, India


Every form has its own structure. Technically, though there is a difference between computer games and literature, but structurally both reflect same modes of the presentation which is carried out by certain codes. The present paper looks into the structural analysis of computer games with technical aspect as well as literature aspect with special reference to Far Cry 3, a first person action adventure computer game which received several awards and critically acclaimed for its graphics, story line, features etc. Besides this paper relocate Vladimir Propp’s theory of narrative function in Far Cry 3 and decode how the computer game with the help of certain binary opposition and codes have become one of the fundamental tools of getting entertained in the popular imagination.

[Keywords: Vladimir Propp’s theory, Computer Game, Structural analysis of adventure game, Far Cry 3]

In the twenty first century, technology has gripped every aspect of the society with the increment of the influence of technology, people started seeking the pleasure and even consolation from the digital world. Earlier, when the technology was in developing phase people gratified from folk tale, short stories, fiction and moreover from literature. But now people get his ultimate satisfaction from the digital world. This digital world comprises all sorts of genre which have been carried out by the people till now. It has started pampering the mind of the people. Computer game is one of those thousand technologies on which todays’ teen get much pleasure than reading a book or fiction. It has become a kind of addiction to the young generation. But a close and critical observation of the recent computer game also offers a way out to the narrative structure which is there in any literary work.

Before we go deep into the article, there are some points which are quite necessary to clear. There are various genres in literature, like poetry, fiction, short story, drama etc. The computer game also bears the same quality of having various types, for example action game, strategy game, adventure game, racing game etc. Like any literary text where literariness is necessary, the computer game also bears some kind of reflection of the literariness, which bears the plot and a specific storyline. Moreover, like any literary text the computer game can analyze from any theoretical point of view. Let’s analyze how the narratives have been given a digital frame with special reference to Far Cry 3.


Far Cry 3 is a game about the exploration, exploitation and experimentation. It is an advanced action-adventure first person game, which is set on the Rook Island between the Indian and Pacific Ocean. This game has earned the fame for its storyline and its presentation throughout the world. It was honored with the several awards, including British Academy Video games Award and National Academy of Video game Trade Reviewers Award in 2013. According to Jeffrey Yohalem, the writer of the game the plot is about “what shooting means and what it does to humanity” (Far Cry 3, 2014). The protagonist of the game is Jason Brody, who, along with his elder and younger brothers Grant and Riley and some of his friends, come to Bangkok on vacation to celebrate Riley’s getting license. They come down to the Rook Island, during their skydiving. Rook Island is captured and controlled by the pirates under the control of Vass, one of the most notorious antagonists in the game world. Vass imprisons all of them and tortures them brutally. Jason and Grant are kept in the same cell when the others are taken for the ransom. Grant, the elder brother of Jason, makes a plan to escape and finally they manage to free themselves, but unfortunately Grant is killed by Vass and somehow Jason successfully escapes from that place and takes shelter in the jungle. Shortly thereafter, Jason meets a member of the Rakyat tribe named Dennis, who wanted to help him as he finds Jason has the ability to obey the “path of the warrior”. Rakyat tribe also wanted to take over Vass as they are also exploited and tortured by that psychopathetic villain. Citra, the leader of the Rakyat tribe and the sister of Vass, is agreed to help Jason in rescuing his friends, but in a condition, i.e., if he can manage Silver Dragon, a knife which the Rakyat tribe revered. Buck Huges buys Keith, one of the friends of Jason as a human slave but he promises to give him back to Jason if he is able to manage the Silver Dragon. The Silver Dragon is managed but Buck refuses to give Keith back, so the fight takes place and Jason kills Buck. Jason manages to rescue Lize, Keith and Oliver to Dr. Earnhardt, who helps them a lot in that island. They have been given a boat to escape from that island, but Jason refused to leave as he wants to free his younger brother Riley from Vass. Keith tries to convince him that Riley has been shot dead by Vass and he witnessed it. Still Jason wants to take revenge on that and wants to kill Vass.

               Jason hands over the Silver Dragon to Citra. Citra helps Jason to kill Vass after getting that Silver Dragon. Sam Becker, a CIA agent who is working undercover in Hoyt’s island, helps Jason to find Riley. There Jason, with the help of Sam, wins the trust of Hoyt and later through a poker game Jason kills Hoyt and successfully rescues Riley with the loss of Sam, who is killed during the game by Hoyt. Jason and Riley escape from the island to Dr. Eanhardt after seizing a helicopter from Hoyt. On the other hand, Citra kidnaps all the friends of Jason and kills Dr. Earnhardt. Citra gives two choices to Jason, one is to complete his path of the warrior by killing all his friends and allowing her to be his partner, or to abandon it and return to the life he is craving for. The choice of the player affects the mode and tone of the game. If the player chose to play as a warrior and kills the friends to be the king of the Rakyat tribe, then Jason after having sex with Citra, is killed by her with an assurance that the child which she will carry will be the new king of the tribe in the future. And if the player goes for the second option that is to deny to kill the friends and to take over the throne, then Dennis with the fury tries to kill Jason but by mistake he kills Citra. While Dennis regrets at his deed, Jason and his friends escape from that place and at last they manage to escape from the Island….Access Full Text of the Article

Discursive Sites of Production and Opposition: Post World War I Popular Music Scene in Britain

Samraghni Bonnerjee, Independent Researcher, Kolkata, India

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The post World War I British music scene was varied, spanning several genres, from croon, swoon, jazz, blues, to swing – with influences both home-grown as well as imported. New dances, jazz music, and cocktail parties were continuously being imported from America, aided by the popularity of American cinema, which shaped the form of leisure activities of Britain throughout the Twenties and Thirties. However, the conservative response to these forms of music was strict, and post War society was involved with means of trespassing the restrictions and legislations. This paper intends to look at the genres of popular music and their spatial sites of performance – dance halls and ball rooms in England as well as the English colonies – as discursive sites of production and resistance.

What is Performance Studies?

Richard Schechner, Tisch School of the Arts, New York University

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Because performance studies is so broad-ranging and open to new possibilities, no one can actually grasp its totality or press all its vastness and variety into a single writing book. My points of departure are my own teaching, research, artistic practice, and life experiences.

Performances are actions. As a discipline, performance studies takes actions very seriously in four ways. First, behavior is the “object of study” of performance studies. Although performance studies scholars use the “archive” extensively – what’s in books, photographs, the archaeological record, historical remains, etc. – their dedicated focus is on the “repertory,” namely, what people do in the activity of their doing it. Second, artistic practice is a big part of the performance studies project. A number of performance studies scholars are also practicing artists working in the avant-garde, in community-based performance, and elsewhere; others have mastered a variety of non-Western and Western traditional forms. The relationship between studying performance and doing performance is integral. Third, fieldwork as “participant observation” is a much-prized method adapted from anthropology and put to new uses. In anthropological fieldwork, participant observation is a way of learning about cultures other than that of the field-worker. In anthropology, for the most part, the “home culture” is Western, the “other” non-Western. But in performance studies, the “other” may be a part of one’s own culture (non-Western or Western), or even an aspect of one’s own behavior. That positions the performance studies fieldworker at a Brechtian distance, allowing for criticism, irony, and personal commentary as well as sympathetic participation. In this active way, one performs fieldwork. Taking a critical distance from the objects of study and self invites revision, the recognition that social circumstances– including knowledge itself – are not fixed, but subject to the “rehearsal process” of testing and revising. Fourth, it follows that performance studies is actively involved in social practices and advocacies. Many who practice performance studies do not aspire to ideological neutrality. In fact, a basic theoretical claim is that no approach or position is “neutral”. There is no such thing as unbiased. The challenge is to become as aware as possible of one’s own stances in relation to the positions of others – and then take steps to maintain or change positions.

Semiotic Encryption of Women, Violence and Hysteria in Indian Women Dramaturgy

Praggnaparamita Biswas,  Banaras Hindu University, India

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The juxtaposing depiction of women, violence and hysteria as semiotic elements in women-centric play-texts attempts to translate the theatrical meanings because of its demonstrable approach to unearth the textual meanings and its relational politics of representation. From semiological aspect, the interplay of women, violence and hysteria generates a kind of semiotic femaleness in order to prognosticate the feminist route of cultural politics imbedded in the narratives of female composed drama. The present paper intends to analyze the semiotic transformation of Indian women dramaturgy in the plays of Padmanabhan, Mehta and Sengupta. Each of their plays tries to interpret new meanings hidden under the semiotic signs used by these playwrights and also attempt to project the gender politics visualized in the realm of feminist theatre.  

Ajitesh Bandopadhay: In the Neighbourhood of Liminality

Rajdeep Konar, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

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In my essay I would like to investigate the shift of paradigms in the relationship between theatre and politics that director, playwright and actor Ajitesh Bandopadhay (1933-83) was bringing into Bengali theatre. I would like to analyze how in the field of theater he was trying to form a threshold space: a threshold where politics and ethics, community and the individual, global and local can exist together as equals not imparting the hegemony of one on the other. How Ajitesh strove to conceive a theatre which puts forth itself as an analytical presence of life and society unmediated by an ideological or ethical regime. I would like to argue that it is in such a liminal presence in theatre, politics and the world; that the key to our future community of equality lie. This would also be an attempt at reclaiming the legacy of Ajitesh, whose influence on Bengali theatre has been hugely underplayed by the rather scanty posthumous attention being paid to his work.

From New Elocution to New Criticism and the Dismissal of Vachel Lindsay

Brian McAllister, Albany State University, Georgia, USA

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Vachel Lindsay’s fame was made, and ultimately ruined, by his performances of his “Higher Vaudeville” poems.  This essay discusses the performance of the Higher Vaudeville in light of ideas of the New Elocution movement of the early twentieth century which influenced Lindsay’s technique.  Lindsay conceived these poems as elements of a performance medium.  Ironically, some of the New Elocution ideas were indurated by the New Criticism, which discounted performance as constitutive of poetic meaning and led to Lindsay’s critical dismissal. A consideration of the Higher Vaudeville as performance argues that Lindsay’s achievement warrants critical reassessment.

Modern Rendition of Ancient Arts: Negotiating Values in Traditional Odissi Dance

Shreelina Ghosh, Dakota State University

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Recent innovations in remediating performances allow dancers to perform, collaborate, teach, learn and forge new inter-body relationships that substitute the traditional Guru-Shishya or master-disciple relationship. The divide between technologized and traditional practices in dance creates a productive space that can help scholars understand how digital and networked technologies are transforming embodied cultural memory. Tradition-technology encounters and formations of a deviant discourse challenge the dominant (traditional) norms of embodied cultural memory. My qualitative study of the field reveals that innovation has been encouraged by the most members of the dance community. However, if mediated dance compromises values associated with the dance, like its sacredness, the importance of the body, and the importance of the Guru, it can be potentially subversive to the traditional practice. The main points of conflict between traditional dance and technologically mediated practices indicate moments of compromise in the traditional values.

The Therapeutic Value of Indian Classical, Folk and Innovative Dance Forms

Arpita Chatterjee, Barasat College, West Bengal State University, India

Dance provides an active, non-competitive form of exercise that has potential positive effects for physical health as well as mental and emotional wellbeing. Dance therapy is based on the idea that body and mind are co-relational. The therapeutic approaches with various forms of Indian dances are a new entrant to dance literature. Ayurveda held dance as a power of healing (therapy) and inner awareness (psychology). Indian philosophy also supports the facts of Sangeet (song, dance and music) for benefit of human health physically as well as mentally. The powerful dance form of Bhangra (Punjab), Karagam (Tamilnadu), Chou, Rayabese, Dhali (West Bengal) gives good health and strength. The fast footwork of Kathak dance helps to release anger and tension. Manipuri dancers make rounded movements and avoid any jerks, sharp edges or straight lines. It gives them undulating and soft appearance, proper body control and peace of mind. All these body movements, body balancing, expression, muscle movement, muscle constriction and relaxation have a strong effect on therapeutic movements. In India today the dance therapists are conscious about this matter and in therapeutic sessions they actually improvise different dance movements according to the need.

Aesthetics of Indian Feminist Theatre

Anita Singh, Banaras Hindu University, Uttar Pradesh, India


This study addresses a number of Indian feminist plays (both by men and women) that were written and performed in the last century and early years in this century. The paper focus specifically on Indian theatre because of its long established theatre tradition that goes back to 1st century B.C. Ironically in such a country there were hardly any women dramatist to speak of before 19th century. At the core, the belief of a Feminist theatre is in the efficacy of theatre as a tool for conscientization, for critiquing social disparities and for self exploration and expression. Feminist theatre is a source of empowerment; it enables women to speak out. It is at the intersection of art, activism and social relevance and sees theatre as an instrument of real change in women’s lives.  It is an exploration of women’s own unique idiom, their own form, their language and ways of communication. It is a challenge to the established notions of theatre.